A visit to a Paris Christmas Market is the fastest way to get into the holiday spirit when visiting the City of Light during the shortest days of the year.
With sparkling lights, Christmas trees full of bright decorations, and even occasional visits from Saint Nicholas - or Père Noël, as Parisian children call him - these festive street markets filled with Swiss-style wooden chalets transport a tradition begun in the Middle Ages in Alsace and Germany to the French capital.
Copy the Parisians - sip hot mulled wine, munch on roasted chestnuts, and sample delicious sausages, cheese and chocolates while shopping for arts and crafts, festive Christmas decorations, regional food specialties, candies, and other gifts until well into the night.
During a typical year, about 15-20 Paris Christmas Markets appear across the city, joined by additional "pop-up" markets lasting just a day, a weekend, or even a week or two. And that's not counting the small neighborhood holiday markets with perhaps a dozen or fewer chalets offering specialty foods and small gifts that appear on a seemingly ad hoc basis - sometimes returning to the same location year after year, but sometimes shifting to new locations.
Traditionally, these picturesque markets span the Advent season beginning four Sundays before Christmas. This year, look for opening dates from mid-November to mid-December. Although a few markets stay in place for only a week or two, most remain open through Christmas Eve and some continue to stay in place until early January.
Here are Paris Discovery Guide's recommendations for 8 of the biggest, best, & most unique Paris Christmas Markets, plus where to look for many additional smaller, specialty, and pop-up Christmas Market locations throughout the city.
Guide to the 9 Biggest, Best, & Most Spectacular Paris Christmas Markets
1. The Magic of Christmas: La Magie de Noël at Tuileries Garden
La Magie de Noël ("The Magic of Christmas") in Tuileries Garden next to the Louvre grew out of the former Champs-Élysées Christmas Market and is huge - by far the biggest Marché de Noël within Paris, stretching along the garden's entire north edge from Rue des Pyramides to Place de la Concord. It's half Christmas-themed carnival, half Christmas market - and it is also easily the most popular Christmas Market within Paris, attracting over 13 million visitors each holiday season.
Check our December events calendar for exact dates and any updates.
What's the theme at this Christmas carnival/market? Fun, entertainment, food!
Look for a huge ferris wheel, more than a dozen other carnival rides such as bumper cars and "fun house" amusements, an ice skating rink including a separate section for young children, a Champagne bar, steaming copper vats of traditional onion soup and hot mulled wine, French-produced specialty food products, artisan crafts and gifts from around the world, glittering lights, numerous larger-than-life-sized plastic Santas and reindeer - and much more!
La Magie de Noël truly is magic. Come experience it for yourself!
And even though Champs-Élysées no longer hosts this popular Christmas market, you're only five minutes by foot from the famous avenue's dazzling Christmas lights and decorations - so exit Tuileries Garden near Place de la Concorde, and walk over to experience them.
Getting to Tuileries Christmas Market:
- Cost: Free admission, plus whatever you spend on rides, food, and gift items (like all Paris Christmas markets, this one offers many tempting things to purchase)
- Location: Tuileries Garden (Jardin des Tuileries)
- Métro: Concorde, Tuileries
- Open: Late November - early January
- More to Do Nearby: Need to do more holiday shopping? Exit Tuileries Garden, cross Rue de Rivoli, and walk up Rue de Castiglione to Place Vendome, or turn left or right on Rue Saint-Honoré and explore the chic boutiques. Check out the brightly-lit stores in the underground shopping mall Carrousel du Louvre (enter near the Palais Royal/Musée du Louvre Metro station). Or walk across Place de la Concorde to explore all the stores lining both sides of Champs-Élysées, where sparkling lighted trees dazzle along the famous avenue. Turn onto nearby Avenue Montaigne and check out the designer showrooms. If you continue walking down Avenue Montaigne toward Place de l'Alma, you'll soon see the spectacularly lit Eiffel Tower framed by the avenue's ethereal white Christmas lights.
Special Christmas & New Year's Eve Cruises
2. Paris Notre-Dame Christmas Market at Square Viviani
Perhaps the most picturesque of the Paris Christmas Markets is the Marché de Noel Notre Dame, located across the Seine from the famous cathedral in Square Viviani on the Left Bank's Quai Montebello. Despite the tragic fire at Notre Dame in April 2018, the Marché de Noël continues.
With Notre Dame's soaring medieval towers as a backdrop and especially poignant due to the cathedral's on-going restoration after near-destruction, this cheerful market offers the usual vin chaud (hot mulled wine) and roasted chestnuts. Occasional appearances by musicians add to the festivities. The vibe here is always elegant, relaxed, and focused on the holiday spirit.
However, the Marché de Noel's specialties are high-quality arts and artisan crafts made in France. You can usually find an especially nice selection of gift-worthy clothing and accessories here, as well as fancy gourmet foods.
Best of all, Santa makes frequent appearances - sometimes with a glass of vin chaud in hand.
Getting to the Marché de Noel Notre Dame:
- Location: Square René-Viviani on Quai Montebello, at the edge of the Latin Quarter in the 5th Arrondissement
- Métro: Saint Michel, Maubert-Mutualité
- RER: B and C, Saint-Michel - Notre-Dame
- Open: Mid-December until (usually) Christmas Eve or later
- More to Do Nearby: Visit the lovely medieval church next door, Église Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre, which dates back to 1160. Or cross the bridge and check out the renovations underway at Notre-Dame. For books, café fare, and perhaps some conversation, stop by Shakespeare & Company, an English-language haven adjacent to Square Viviani at 37 Rue de la Bûcherie
3. Montmartre Christmas Market at Place des Abbesses (near Sacre Coeur)
Located next to the Place des Abbesses Metro station on one of the most photo-worthy areas in Montmartre, the Place des Abbesses market is small (about 15-20 chalets in total) but charming, and features local artisans, designers, and creators. A large decorated Christmas tree and occasional visits from Santa to welcome you.
Fortify yourself with a cup of warm spiced wine and a small packet of hot roasted chestnuts, straight off the grill - look for Vin Chaud and Marrons Chaud signs, or just follow your nose.
This market is also a good place to sample traditional fare, such as escargot, small plates of sauted mushrooms, and raclette. You'll also find specialties to take back to your apartment, such as foie gras from Périgord, tapenades from Provence, and speciality cheeses.
Alternately, you can also join the crowd at the Champagne bar!
The Montmartre Christmas market is a good place to stock up on hand-knit scarves, Christmas markets, honey from Paris, one-of-a-kind fashion and jewelry, and children's toys.
For kids, there's a brightly lighted carousel, and usually appearances by Père Noël on the weekends.
This is a fun market to visit if you want to get a taste of the Christmas markets but avoid the crowds filling the larger markets. With the friendly neighborhood vibe, it can't be beat!
Coming here is also a great excuse to explore the winding hills of Montmartre and make your way to Sacré-Coeur, just a few blocks away, to enjoy the sweeping city vistas.
- Location: Next to the Abbesses Butte Montmartre Métro station in Montmartre, 18th Arrondissement
- Métro: Abbesses Butte Montmartre
- Bus: 80, 95 (get off at Cimetière de Montmartre and walk a few blocks east on Rue Joseph de Maistre/Rue des Abbesses to the market)
- Open: Late November - end of December
- More to Do Nearby: Check out the "Wall of Love" (le mur des je t'aime) in Square Rictus next to the market while sipping a cup of hot mulled wine. Explore Montmartre. And of course visit the boutiques along Rue des Abbesses, one of the great market streets in Paris.
If you're heading back into central Paris after your visit, walk down pedestrian-only Rue des Martyrs and enjoy the holiday lights stretching across the street and all the Christmas and New Year specialty foods offered in the dozens of gourmet shops lining this famous market street.
4. Paris Christmas Market at Hôtel de Ville
The spectacular Hôtel de Ville Christmas Marketwins the prize (if there were one) as "most beautiful" this year thanks to the gorgeous light show bathing the building's neo-Renaissance facade with falling snowflakes dancing across a brilliant blue background.
The Hôtel de Ville Christmas Market offers an enchanting forest filled with evergreen trees decorated with silver ornaments and sparkling white lights, traditional market stalls offering offering hot mulled wine, raclette, freshly cooked crepes drizzled with Nutella, and the tantalizing smell of roasted chestnuts, and free family-oriented activities such as a carousel, a "luge" for tubing, a vertical climbing wall, and visits with Santa.
Look for about 8 chalets featuring gift items made by French craftsmen or offering mouth-watering food and beverage favorites - crepes filled with nutella, raclette, onion soup, and of course, hot mulled wine.
The light show, numerous sparkling lights, and tranquil ambiance makes this Christmas market especially charming at night.
- Location: Rue de Rivoli, across from BHV Marais (52 Rue de Rivoli)
- Métros: Hotel de Ville
- Open: Early December - early January
- More to Do Nearby: Cross over Rue de Rivoli and shop at BHV Marais department store, or continue farther into the Marais neighborhood and explore the many fantastic boutiques - you'll find some wonderful options along Rue des Francs Bourgeois.
5. Saint-Germain-des-Prés Christmas Market
The 40 or so chalets of this Christmas Market line Boulevard St-Germain next to the famous St-Germain-des-Prés Church.
This is one of the city's best mid-sized markets, and specializes in luxury items, such as fine leather pocketbooks, lovely jewelry, French gastronomy products, and handcrafted items. This is a good place to buy scented candles, glass Christmas ornaments, leather-bound notebooks and bags made in France, and exquisite chocolates filled with liquor.
Fortify yourself with the usual hot mulled wine and roasted chestnuts as you walk past mouth-watering displays of artisinal macarons, marrons glacés (candied chestnuts) from Southern France, caviar, smoked salmon, truffles, foie gras, and jewel-like jars of fruit jams.
You'll also find specialty wines and liquors from other regions of France.
And of course, after you've had your fill of shopping and great food and drink at the Saint-Germain Christmas market, check out the boutiques in nearby neighborhood streets, where canopies of sparkling holiday lights create a festive ambiance.
- Location: Blvd Saint-Germain, next to Saint-Germain-des-Prés Church, 6th Arrondissement
- Métro: Saint-Germain
- Bus: 39, 63, 70, 86, 96
- Open: Mid-December until early January
- More to Do Nearby: Walk a few blocks to the Cluny Christmas Market, (next to the Cluny Museum at the Saint-Germain/Boulevard de Saint-Michel intersection) where you'll find a half-dozen or so stalls offering delicious prepared regional French food to eat on the spot. Spend an hour or two at the Cluny Museum (free entrance with a Paris Museum Pass) - also known as the National Museum of the Middle Ages - and immerse yourself in medieval treasures including the famous Lady and the Unicorn tapestries, as well as the 3rd century Roman baths.
- Where to Stay Nearby: Hotels & apartments near Saint-Germain-des-Prés Church in the 6th Arrondissement
More Fun Things to Do & See in Paris at Christmas
6. La Défense Marché de Noël
The huge Christmas Market along the La Défense Esplanade boasts 350 chalets, making it the largest in the Paris region. The holiday decorations and displays next to it on the Esplanade are also fabulous. The market here dates back to 1995 and welcomes about 1.5 million visitors during the holiday season.
The market's spectacular setting in this glittering business district make the 9-minute metro ride from the Étoile/Charles de Gaulle station well worth your time - plus you'll find a vast selection of gifts ranging from trinkets to high-quality jewelry and leather goods, and well-equipped kitchens and restaurants turning out steaming plates of delicious Alsatian fare and Spanish-style paella.
Look for lots of specialty items not seen in smaller markets - Santa costumes, stuffed animals, huge bins brimming over with clementines and other seasonal fruits, candies from the South of France, freshly baked gingerbread, antique books and fine paintings, and large pop-up stores filled with Christmas decorations.
One stall features many different varieties of exquisite nativity figures at surprisingly affordable prices - you may be tempted to fill your suitcase!
Several stalls offer gorgeous finely-tooled leather goods from Morocco, while others have large selections of fashionable scarfs and coats, candies, and tins of herbal teas.
You'll also see special regional hams and sausages, foie gras, cheeses, and special brandies and other liquors.
Kids will also find lots to do and see here, including multiple Santas who happily pose for photos and a small pen filled with very cute miniature donkeys for petting.
You can easily spend an entire evening at this market. And definitely plan to have a meal and glass or two of mulled wine or spiced eggnog here - this is one of the best Paris Christmas markets for dining.
- Location: Esplanade de la Défense
- Métro: Grande Arche de la Défense
- RER: A (from Étoile Metro Station)
- Open: About 5 weeks from late November - late December
- More to Do Nearby: Arrive in daylight hours and check out the 60 sculptures and monuments along the Esplanade. Ice skate around the rink on top of the Grande Arche, which along with the Arc de Triomphe at Étoile and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel near the Louvre, forms the Historical Axis of Paris. After you've explored the Christmas Market, check out the enormous Quatre Temps shopping mall next to the Esplanade. Sports fans won't want to miss the gigantic Décathlon store on the other side. During the evening, walk down the Esplanade toward Paris and enjoy the magical displays of Christmas lights.
7. Eiffel Tower Christmas Market on Champs de Mars
With Christmas trees, fake snow, and close-up views of the famous "Iron Lady," the Eiffel Tour Christmas Village gives you a magical experience you'll remember long after your visit.
This market specializes in delicious gourmet foods and local cuisine ready to be served on the spot. Look for the Alsatian and Savoyard stands with their yummy regional specialties, and sip hot mulled wine as you shop.
With about 35 chalets and usually a few food trucks, this is one of Paris's best mid-sized Christmas markets, and perhaps the most photo-worthy.
- Location: Champ de Mars, at the foot of the Eiffel Tower
- Métro: Pont de l'Alma, Bir Hakeim
- RER C: Champs de Mars
- Open: Early December until just after New Year's Day
- More to Do Nearby: View the whole city from the top of the Eiffel Tower, of course!
8. Paris Christmas Market at Canopée des Halles
Although the Canopée des Halles Christmas Market easily ranked as one of the largest Paris Christmas Markets just a few years ago, it has now shrunk to one of the smallest, with only 20 or so chalets offering sausages, Belgium waffles, and other seasonal specialties, plus vin chaud (hot mulled wine) just a few steps beyond the huge Forum des Halles shopping mall.
Under the Canopée, an enormous sparkling Christmas tree reminds you that more shopping and dining opportunies can be found among the shops inside the multi-storied complex.
- Location: Forum des Halles, 101 Porte Berger
- Métros: Chatelet, Les Halles
- Open: Mid-November through late December
- More to Do Nearby: Shop in Forum des Halles (the below-ground shopping complex surrounding the metro/train station), visit adjacent Église Saint-Eustache, or explore market street Run Montorgueil to the right (as you face it) of the church. Hungry? Stop by Alain Ducasse's Champeaux restaurant in the Forum for a glass of wine, a snack, or a full meal.
What Is the Best Christmas Market in Paris?
In a city such as Paris with a wealth of wonderful and diverse Marches de Noël that may change from one year to the next, "best" is a difficult call to make - but here are some choices:
- Best Paris Christmas Market for Fun: The Magic of Christmas: La Magie de Noël at Tuileries Garden. Because who can resist a Christmas-themed carnival with fantastic food offerings? More
- Best Paris Christmas Market for Families: Notre-Dame Christmas Market at Square Viviani. Friendly Santas make this market special for children, and a relaxed vibe (along with hot mulled wine) keeps everyone smiling. And the views of nearby Notre-Dame Cathedral are magical.
- Best Paris Christmas Market for Upscale Gifts: Saint-Germain-des-Prés Christmas Market attracts vendors with high-quality goods and regional specialty foods and wine to appeal to discerning residents and tourists in this upscale neighborhood.
- Best (& Biggest) Christmas Market for 1-Stop Shopping: The La Défense Christmas Market just a 10-minute metro ride outside of Paris, with its 350+ stalls and the adjacent Quatre Temps shopping center and Décathlon sporting goods store offers serious shoppers just about everything they need for the holidays, including holiday decor and Christmas tree ornaments. Food offerings of freshly made paella, couscous, raclette, tartiflette, crepes, and Bavarian sausage and peppers mean you can also dine very well here.
- Most Beautiful Paris Christmas Market: Hotel de Ville Christmas Market. Sparkling lights, a forest of Christmas trees, and a magical light show across the façade of the ornate Hotel de Ville (Paris City Hall) all give a festive ambiance that capture the spirit of the holidays.
- Best Paris Christmas Market for Experiencing its Friendly Neighborhood Vibe: Place des Abbesses Christmas Market in Montmartre. Perfect combination of holiday foods and beverages, nice gifts, beautiful surroundings, and friendly neighborhood shoppers. Frequent performances by local musicians make this market extra-special.
- Best Paris Christmas Market for Its Iconic View: Eiffel Tower Christmas Village. With lots of Christmas trees, fake snow, and tasty cuisine and regional specialties, this market has a lot of offer - but the Eiffel Tower views make it an experience to remember!
Paris Hotels for Your Christmas Market Visit
Planning a trip to Paris during the holiday season? Use this Paris hotel map to find hotels near your favorite Christmas markets:
Where to Find More Christmas Markets
Most of these are smaller markets. Most appear faithfully every year and attract hoards of loyal fans, although others are less reliable but worth looking for if you're already nearby.
Alsatian Christmas Market at Gare de l'Est - Confirmed for 2021
Located in front of the Gare de l'Est train station in the 10th Arrondissement, this popular market - the oldest Alsation Christmas Market outside of Alsace - takes place under a big tent during the first two or three weeks in December (check December Events Calendar for exact dates). Stock up on tasty Alsatian traditional food, with daily free tastings.
What specialties should you look for? The 15 or so Alsation artisans offer charcuterie, Munster and other cheeses, regional wines and brandies, jams, goose and duck foie gras, gugelhupf, brioche Männele, potato galettes, gingerbreads, smoked pork, and sauerkraut - all your favorite flavors of Alsace without leaving Paris.
Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette Marché de Noel at La Grande Halle across from the Philharmonie concert hall (221 Avenue Jean-Jaurès) pops up in early December and remains open until Christmas Eve. The market is small (although it seems to grow a bit larger each year), but you'll find all the essentials: hot mulled wine, crepes filled with Nutella, and gifts.
Unfortunately, the photo above was taken in pouring rain - but normally, the market is filled with shoppers from the nearby area who stop by to enjoy a cup of vin chaud or steaming hot onion soup and to chat with their neighbors.
Gare Saint-Lazare Christmas Market - To Be Confirmed for 2021
Gare Saint-Lazare Marché de Noël, in front of the Saint Lazare train station in the 8th arrondissement, sports a modern look and feel - in fact, purists might not even consider it a Christmas market. But it's fun and all in good cheer, especially if you like Disney and Legos, and who can resist the Champagne bar?
Saint-Sulpice Christmas Market
Saint-Sulpice, near the St-Sulpice Métro station, Luxembourg neighborhood in the 6th Arrondissement, usually early December through Christmas Eve; a pop-up Alpine ski rink sometimes also appears here.
Christmas Chalets near Cluny Museum
The Cluny Museum Christmas Market consists of only about a dozen chalets located along in a double row along Boulevard Saint-Germain next to the Cluny Museum in the Latin Quarter, with a few more around the corner on Boulevard Saint Michel. Like many of Paris's other small hyper-local Christmas markets, you probably wouldn't go out of your way to visit it but if you happen to pass by, it's definitely worth a lingering look. As you can see in the above photo, the special cheeses alone gives you a solid reason to stop and make a few purchases.
Most of the chalets offer mouth-watering regional food specialties such as sausages, cheeses, patés, jams, fancy nuts and fruits, and wine, although a couple feature arrays of artisinal chocolates in gift boxes. On chilly December nights, steaming containers of hot mulled wine and hot chocolates are a welcome sight to Parisians on their way home from work or school at the end of the day.
Trocadéro Christmas Village
Trocadéro Christmas Village takes place at or near (location varies) Palace of Chaillot in the 16th Arrondissement next to the Trocadéro Métro station, typically mid-December through early January - although not every year.
Christmas Market at the Feeries d'Anteuil - Confirmed for 2021
This small market is located at 40 rue Jean de la Fontaine in the 16th arr, and runs for about 9 days in early December (see our December Events Calendar for exact dates). In addition to crafts, leather goods, jewelry, and even an oyster bar, you can enjoy magic shows, puppets, concerts, and other family entertainment. The market is run by a charity that supports disadvantaged Parisian children, and profits go to this cause. Find the event schedule here: https://www.apprentis-auteuil.org
Montparnasse Christmas Market
Look for a small number of chalets next to the train station offering nice gift items and a few tasty things to eat and drink such as roasted chestnuts, gingerbread, and spicy hot mulled wine. Although you probably wouldn't go out of your way to visit this market, like the Christmas market at Gare Saint-Lazare, it's popular with the numerous commuters who pass through the train and metro station each day.
Bercy Village Christmas Market & Holiday Lights
Bercy Village, a charming cobblestone passage lined with 19th century wine warehouses now transformed into cute boutiques, amusements, bistros, and bars in Paris's 12th arrondissement, stages a spectacular light display created each year by a different artist or designer, along with at least one large brightly lit tree and other decorations. (The adjacent 18-screen UGC Cité-Cine Bercy movie theater is another big attraction.) A few popup stalls join the permanent shops for an experience that's slightly different from the more typical Christmas markets, but always worth a visit. Look for the light display from mid-November through mid-January. Location: 28 Rue François Truffaut, Paris 12
Christmas Market at Pompidou Center
The Marché de Noël Paris Beaubourg across from Centre Pompidou in the 4th arrondissement is usually open for the month of December until just after the New Year. Very close to the jazz clubs along Rue des Lombards, in case you need to reward yourself with music and a drink after shopping
15th Arrondissement Town Hall Christmas Market
In the courtyard at the 15th district's Hotel de Ville (31 rue Péclet, near Vaugirard Metro Station), you'll see about 20 chalets offering regional specialities, crafts, jewelry, and Christmas decorations, plus plenty of free fun activities including pony rides, sleigh rides, and even a merry-go-round. The market is usually there for about 10 days leading up to Christmas.
Sacre Coeur Christmas Market
This is a small, occasional market, with just a handful of chalets. Look for them next to the carousel in the small park at the foot of the hill leading up to Sacre Coeur. If you don't see it, head over the the market at Place de l'Abbesses instead.
Place d'Italie Marché de Noel
About 20 chalets offer gifts and mouth-watering specialty food items at the Italie 2 shopping center at Place d'Italie (30 Avenue d'Italie, 13th arrondissement). The market is usually in place from early December through Christmas Eve.
Champ de Mars / Quai Branly / Eiffel Tower Christmas Market
The location of this market varies - sometimes it's on Champ de Mars in front of the Eiffel Tower, and sometimes it's on Quai Branly next to the Seine - and number of chalets vary as well, but here's the important thing to know: food offerings here are usually outstanding, with prepared treats such as raclette and even paella almost stealing the show - although of course the real show-stopper here is the Iron Lady, especially during the nightly light show.
During some years, there's also a pop-up ice skating rink next to the market, which usually takes place during the last 2 weeks in December/early January. Closest Metro: Bir Hakeim, Alma Marceau (across the Seine) or La Tour-Maubourg, 7th Arrondissement
Pop-Up Stalls Selling Holiday Fare
What's a pop-up Christmas market? Usually these are smaller markets, sometimes devoted to a specific theme such as the Japanese Holiday Market and the Swedish Christmas Market. They typically open from one to several days each season. Sometimes they take place in the same location from year to year, but not always.
Neighborhood pop-up stalls also come and go in some areas, so you will most likely happen upon them. One area where this frequently occurs is near Galeries Lafayette, across from the main building on Blvd Haussmann. Look for luxury goods, such as perfume, designer scarves, and fine leather gloves.
Even the regularly-held Paris street markets expand their offerings at this time of the year.
For example, even the small tucked-away Marché Saint-Honoré (Wednesday afternoon/evening and Saturday until 3pm) in the 1st Arrondissement expands with stalls offering knit garment, fancy confits, and jewelry.
Where to (Maybe) Find a Pop-Up Market
Pop-up Christmas markets, by their nature, are ephemeral and can be hard to find if you don't live in Paris - but a place always worth checking is the spacious Halle des Blancs Manteau (48 Rue Vielle du Temple, 4th Arrondissement), an old covered market dating back to the early 1800s in the heart of the Marais.
If you don't find a pop-up market underway, you'll find plenty of other shopping opportunities in this part of the Marais - or walk a few more blocks to Village Saint-Paul (currently undergoing reconstruction, but ignore the mess and enjoy the number of shops still open while the work progresses).
Dates for Les Marchés de Noël
Opening dates vary - but the larger markets usually open during the middle or end of November, or early December. Closing dates vary from just before or after Christmas to New Year's Eve or even early January. Those that do continue into early January often close right before the big January sales begin.
A few smaller markets wait until mid-December to open. Pop-up markets are ephemeral by definition and typically take place for only 1-3 days.